Academic Calendar

SOWK – Social Work

SOWK 101
Social Work Philosophy and Ethics
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is intended as an introduction to the study of the social work profession and the evolution of its theory and practices in Canada and elsewhere. The course examines the philosophical base of social work's contemporary identity, as well as its links to other disciplines and human service professions. The course takes a broad look at social work practice principles with an emphasis on helping students to prepare themselves for practicing in caring and anti-oppressive ways in an increasingly diverse society. Ethical traditions and principles are introduced, both as specific guides to practice and as frameworks for consideration of broader social conditions and issues. Relational ethics and the concept of the best ethical self are particularly emphasized. Students are challenged and encouraged to reflect on the knowledge, ideals, values, and attitudes they bring to their learning and to social work practice.

SOWK 102
Introduction to Social Work Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is an introduction to professional social work practice. Students are introduced to foundational knowledge that underpins the social work profession and the values and ethics that guide practice. Students explore the helping process and learn how to use key social work practice skills in a variety of practice and inter-cultural settings. The course also provides students with the opportunity to critically reflect upon their potential to practice social work in an effective manner.

SOWK 105
Field Placement
4 Credits          Total (0-0-240)

The field placements constitute the practical component of the program and are concerned with the integration of theory and practice. They are taken concurrently with the Social Work Practice Methods courses. The overall purpose of the placements is to provide students with the opportunity to apply classroom learning within the context of specific field placement settings. Students have the opportunity to develop and to demonstrate practice skills based on the values, knowledge and skills taught in the core courses of the program. Field education is a form of teaching and learning in which students have the opportunity to experience themselves as developing social workers in a supervised practice setting.

SOWK 110
Social Work Practice Methods I
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course introduces students to social work practice methods and the effective use of skills in their practice. Social work philosophy, values, ethics, and practice skills are examined in the context of professional practice. Social work practice theory including ecological systems and structural models of practice, life stage development, and a strengths-based perspective are examined. Students apply the four stages of an effective interview: the preliminary phase; the beginning phase; the work phase and the ending phase. The course focuses on assisting students to develop awareness of cultural issues and skills in social work practice.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 101 and SOWK 102.

Co-requisites: SOWK 115.

SOWK 111
Social Work With Families
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is designed to offer students knowledge and insight into the dynamics of families from a social work perspective. Students examine their families of origin to gain insight into personal attitudes and values. This course helps students develop the knowledge and skills to provide basic services to families in a supportive role. Students examine family systems theory, communication and relationship processes in families, family development and life cycle theory, family strengths and resilience, and cultural aspects of family processes. Students learn to identify family strengths and to provide support to enhance positive family functioning.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 101 and SOWK 102.

SOWK 112
Social Work With Children and Adolescents
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course examines child and adolescent developmental life stages, prenatal to adolescence. Students explore lifespan development theory, tasks, needs and issues from a Social Work perspective. Specific emphasis is placed on: understanding the physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, moral and social processes for the child; understanding the needs and responsibilities of parents at each stage of child and adolescent development; critiquing society's roles and reactions to the needs of children, parents, and families; and, describing the nature of social work intervention in each developmental stage and the implications for social policy. Cross cultural aspects of lifespan development are explored.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 101 and SOWK 102.

SOWK 115
Field Placement
4 Credits          Total (0-0-240)

The field placements constitute the practical component of the program and are concerned with the integration of theory and practice. They are taken concurrently with the Social Work Practice Methods courses. The overall purpose of the placements is to provide students with the opportunity to apply classroom learning within the context of specific field placement settings. Students have the opportunity to develop and to demonstrate practice skills based on the values, knowledge and skills taught in the core courses of the program. Field education is a form of teaching and learning in which students have the opportunity to experience themselves as developing social workers in a supervised practice setting.

Prerequisites: SOWK 105.

Co-requisites: SOWK 110.

SOWK 201
Group Work
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is designed to develop specific group work skills, an appreciation of the impact of groups, and a recognition of the appropriate use of groups in the social work field. It examines the components of the group process and develops skills in organizing and facilitating groups. Focus is on increasing students' awareness of their own interaction in groups and on demonstrating their ability to use effective social work skills with groups. The students have an opportunity to integrate the theoretical concepts with actual experience by participating in and leading group sessions.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 110, SOWK 111 and SOWK 112.

SOWK 202
Social Work Practice Methods II
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course builds on social work practice theory and skills introduced in Social Work Practice Methods I (SOWK 110). Students learn an organized approach to problem solving, including: social work assessment, establishing short and long term goals, implementation of change strategies, and evaluation of their work. Students are encouraged to adopt a strengths-based approach to practice recognizing the social, political, and cultural context of their clients' lives. Discussion of theoretical concepts and experiential learning in the classroom helps students develop and enhance their social work practice skills and articulate a professional model of practice. Students also learn to document their work with clients.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 110 and SOWK 111.

Co-requisites: SOWK 205.

SOWK 203
Mental Health, Trauma and Addictions
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides students with an introduction to mental health, trauma and addictions from a social work perspective. Drawing on a competency-based approach to practice, students examine: the history of the treatment of the mentally ill; definitions of mental illness and mental health; common disorders encountered in practice; substance abuse and concurrent disorders; causative factors of mental illness including the role of trauma; factors that promote mental health; mental health assessments; treatment approaches and resources within the community; and mental health legislation and policy. Students explore their own values, ideas and experiences related to mental health, trauma and addiction and develop sensitivity to cultural issues in defining and treating mental health problems. Specific attention is focused on the role of social workers in the delivery of mental health services.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in SOWK 110, SOWK 111, and SOWK 112 plus Minimum grade of D in PSYC 104.

SOWK 204
Social Policy and Anti-Oppressive Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is designed to help students become critically aware of the economic, social and political environment within which they practice social work. The course examines the process by which social policy is developed in Canada and encourages reflection of the ways social workers are influenced by and in turn can influence that process. Students are invited to examine their own values as well as some dominant ideologies and assumptions present within Canada today. Opportunities are provided for students to enhance their understanding of a range of contemporary social issues of particular relevance to the social work profession. A strong theme developed throughout the course is that of understanding the nature of structural and anti-oppressive social work practice.

Prerequisites: SOWK 101, SOWK 102, ENGL 102, ENGL 103, SOWK 110, SOWK 111.

SOWK 205
Field Placement
4 Credits          Total (0-0-240)

The field placements constitute the practical component of the program and are concerned with the integration of theory and practice. They are taken concurrently with the Social Work Practice Methods courses. The overall purpose of the placements is to provide students with the opportunity to apply classroom learning within the context of specific field settings. Students have the opportunity to develop and to demonstrate practice skills based on the values, knowledge and skills taught in the core courses of the program. Field education is a form of teaching and learning in which students have the opportunity to experience themselves as developing social workers in a supervised practice setting.

Prerequisites: SOWK 115.

Co-requisites: SOWK 202.

SOWK 210
Community Practice Methods III
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides students with an introduction to theoretical knowledge and skills for working with communities. Students examine current theories of community development/organization and develop the skills necessary for effective social work intervention and change at the community level. This course includes a local and global perspective and issues related to environment and international development.

Prerequisites: SOWK 201, SOWK 202 and SOWK 204.

SOWK 211
Social Work Methods IV
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides an introduction to knowledge and skills for social work practice related to family violence. Students examine relevant theory and people's experience of family violence, neglect, deprivation, and separation / loss across the life span. Students also explore topics related to family violence and social work practice from historical, ideological, structural, and cultural perspectives.

Prerequisites: SOWK 204 & a minimum grade of C- SOWK 201 & SOWK 202.

Co-requisites: SOWK 203.

SOWK 215
Field Placement
4 Credits          Total (0-0-240)

The field placements constitute the practical component of the program and are concerned with the integration of theory and practice. They are taken concurrently with the Social Work Practice Methods courses. The overall purpose of the placements is to provide students with the opportunity to apply classroom learning within the context of specific field placement settings. Students have the opportunity to develop and to demonstrate practice skills based on the values, knowledge and skills taught in the core courses of the program. Field education is a form of teaching and learning in which students have the opportunity to experience themselves as developing social workers in a supervised practice setting.

Prerequisites: SOWK 205.

SOWK 240
Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students are introduced to the social work profession and social welfare in Canada. The history of the social work profession is explored in the context of the development of social welfare in Canada. Students are exposed to values, ethics and theoretical foundations of the social work profession and supported to apply a social work perspective to a variety of social issues. Students also explore their suitability for the social work profession. Note: This course is a requirement for students who wish to apply to the BSW program and do not have a Social Work diploma. This course cannot be used as an elective for students applying to or in the Social Work diploma program.

SOWK 301
Introduction to Social Work Ideology and Ethics
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students study theoretical foundations and ideologies that shape the role and identity of the social work profession. Exploring the historical roots of social work, students identify their relevance to present day practice. There is an introduction to ethical models and ideological perspectives and their application to practice. Emphasis is placed on relational ethics, third space dialogue and the ethics of sustainability. Students are challenged to develop their critical thinking skills by examining their beliefs, values, ethics as well as those of the profession of social work.

SOWK 302
Indigenous Knowledge: Contributions to Sustainable Social Work Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students explore how the field of social work might support Indigenous efforts to maintain healthy families, communities, and nations.  Students are introduced to the philosophical foundations of Indigenous knowledge systems with a focus on exploring traditional healing practices.  Students consider how historical and contemporary expressions of colonialism have impacted the well-being of Indigenous peoples.  Throughout the course, students enhance their self-awareness and investigate how their personal values, beliefs and experiences may impact their future social work practice with Indigenous peoples.

SOWK 303
Social Work and Sustainability
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students are introduced to the important role social work can play in addressing the environmental challenges of our times. Students explore the root cause of the environmental crisis and have the opportunity to explore a wide variety of ethical perspectives related to the human-nature relationship. The environmental crisis is then explored through the lens of social and environmental justice. Subsequently, students are supported to develop a personal model of social work practice that sustains individuals, families, communities and the environment in which they co-exist.

SOWK 304
Human Development and the Environment
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students become familiar with and understand the major theories of human development across the lifespan and explore human development and behaviour in the social environment.  Students critique the dominant theories and explore ways in which culture, gender and class impact human development.  Students are required to explore their own views and values on human development and link these to major theories. Students are able to explain how the social determinants impact human development and apply social work intervention strategies at each stage of development.

SOWK 305
Social Work Practice with Individuals and Families
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides students with an introduction to social work practice with individuals and families.  The course is designed to provide students with knowledge of social work practice theories, methods and skills and apply these skills to their practice with individuals and families. Theoretical models and skills related to direct practice are critically examined and explored within the context of professional social work practice including social work ethics, non-oppressive practice, and a commitment to social and environmental sustainability. Students develop their own model of personal/professional sustainability and explore how interventions are implemented in a sustainable way for individuals, families and agencies. Typically this class is taken in conjunction with SOWK 301, 302, 303 and 304. In Individual and Family Practice, students integrate in their practice aspects from all these other classes.

SOWK 310
Social Work and Intercultural Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course is an introduction to social work practice with people of diverse cultures and spiritualities. It begins with an exploration of historical and contemporary issues and social policies related to Canada's identity as a nation of Indigenous people and immigrants; then proceeds to explore experiences and issues of immigrant and refugee people. The course takes a positive, anti-oppressive and strengths-based stance on supporting immigrant and refugee people and communities as they deal with the challenges of migration and pressures for assimilation. The framework for practice presented is focused on relational ethics, with emphasis on the third space and skilled dialogue as interactional care practices. Students are strongly encouraged to develop their reflective skills.

Prerequisites: SOWK 301.

SOWK 311
Critical Thinking and Social Work Research Methods
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students are introduced to the major research paradigms and methods of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on developing skills in utilizing, evaluating and designing research that is relevant in all areas of social work practice. Students are challenged to examine their own approach to knowing, to incorporate evidence-based research into practice, and to think critically about research and how it is reported to the public. The subjectivity of the researcher, the political and ethical context of research, and the role of research as an instrument of power in the lives of oppressed peoples are discussed.

SOWK 312
Social Policy
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students trace the development of Canadian social welfare policy and examine social justice issues and human rights that impact on social work practice. Students develop a critical understanding of the theory and knowledge of anti-oppressive practice and how it relates to human need and social services. Key concepts that challenge social injustices related to economic, social, political and ethical views of society are examined.

SOWK 330
Trauma Informed Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students develop an understanding of trauma and the variety of individual responses to trauma. Students learn the interplay of trauma, mental health and substance abuse. Students learn about self-sustainability, professional and agency sustainability. Developmental, Indigenous and inter-cultural issues related to trauma are explored. Students practice how to conduct an assessment and implement the principles of trauma informed practice.

SOWK 350
Field Practicum
5 Credits          Total (0-0-300)

Students are placed in a human service agency with supervision and mentorship provided by an experienced practitioner.   Students also receive mentorship from a faculty liaison who coordinates and supports the placement.  The purpose of this field placement is to integrate theory and practice, to develop social work skills, examine practice from an ethical perspective, consider the impact of personal experiences/history and develop a professional identity.  As learners in the field, students apply their knowledge to the profession of social work.

Prerequisites: SOWK 305.

Co-requisites: SOWK 351.

SOWK 351
Field Practicum Seminar
1 Credit          Weekly (0-0-12.5)

Students have the opportunity to discuss experiences in placement and to apply social work theory to their field experiences.  The focus of the course is the integration of theory and practice, to develop social work skills, to examine practice from an ethical perspective, to consider the impact of personal experiences/history and develop a professional identity. Students utilize the seminar to discuss ethical issues in practice and they have opportunities to discuss competency in applying a theoretical framework to reflect on their practice.   Students critically engage in self-reflection, analyze their practice, and engage in a small group process to develop their professional problem solving skills & to enhance their professional self.

Prerequisites: SOWK 305.

Co-requisites: SOWK 350.

SOWK 401
Introduction to Social Work with Communities
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Community work is a core component of social work. Social workers in a community setting work to promote social justice by organizing diverse, marginalized and oppressed communities to problem solve and influence structural changes. This course teaches students about the nature of power and the social networks that it flows through, the skills and practices needed to mobilize diverse voices, and the ethics and values that guide social work with communities.

SOWK 402
Social Work with Groups
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course focuses on group work practice within the context of social work values, beliefs, and ethics.  The course is designed to provide students with knowledge and skills in group planning and facilitation for application in a variety of social work settings.  Theoretical models of group practice and social group work are presented, and the use of groups as a means to address oppression is examined.  Self-awareness is encouraged through participation in group sessions and activities.  An emphasis throughout the course is understanding diversity and how it influences group planning and process.

SOWK 403
Leadership in Human Service Organizations
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course explores theories, practices and issues related to leadership of contemporary human service organizations in Canadian society.  Critical perspectives will enhance the students’ understanding of the unique nature of social service organizations, and will contribute to students’ development as effective, ethical and egalitarian leaders who value diversity, sustainability, inter-professionalism, and anti-oppressive practice.  Students will review and critically analyze leadership and organizational theories, gender, class and diversity issues, and specific leadership strategies to create responsive, ethical and positive organizational cultures whose primary goals are service to vulnerable and marginalized populations.

SOWK 410
Advanced Social Work Practice with Children and Families
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students deepen their knowledge base and practice skills specific to social work with children and families. Recognizing that there are complex social and environmental factors influencing the lives of families and children, students look at multiple sources of knowledge to identify and analyze areas of oppression, and to develop strategies for prevention / intervention. The focus is to prepare students for direct and indirect practice with vulnerable populations so they are able to work in both traditional and multidisciplinary settings. Students are encouraged to build an understanding of relational ethics and to apply an anti-oppressive lens in creating a framework for practice with children and families.

SOWK 411
Advanced Social Work Practice with Indigenous Peoples
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students have the opportunity to explore and utilize Indigenous knowledge in the development of social work methods which advance socially just and sustainable communities.  Building upon the knowledge and skills acquired through the completion of SOWK 302, students complete a specialized examination of the structural forces which impact the well-being of Indigenous peoples who reside in urban settings.  Students assess the relevance and effectiveness of a variety of family, health and social supports that are delivered through existing urban infrastructures.  Throughout the course, students analyze the disjuncture between Indigenous paradigms and Settler/dominant worldviews as they seek to envision and create a model of social work which is inclusive and founded upon the principles of justice and reciprocity.

Prerequisites: SOWK 302.

SOWK 412
Advanced Social Work Practice with Communities
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides students with a strong foundation in critical social work (sub)theories that influence community practice. Utilizing structural and anti-oppressive social work perspective, students explore core concepts such as globalization, internationalizing social work practice, Indigenous community development and community resiliency theory.   The course focus is on the integration of practice and skill building with theory and methods.  Students are challenged to enhance their understanding of the interconnected and interrelatedness of social inequities, environmental instability, global capitalism, and diverse forms of oppression at the individual, institutional and structural levels. Activities and assignments focus on fostering critical self and social reflection all the while aiming to identify strategies to address complex issues in today’s globalized world.

SOWK 413
Advanced Practice in Health and Mental Health Settings
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course prepares students to work in health/mental health settings by introducing them to the theory and advanced practice skills specific to these practice settings. Recognizing healthcare settings requires the social worker to collaborate with other healthcare professionals to achieve client health and well-being, students examine various healthcare models to develop intervention strategies to meet the complex needs of the individual and family and address issues of oppression. Social workers have a special role with to present the voices of families and advocate for all members of the client system. Through the use of simulation lab sessions, students examine psychosocial assessment, contracting, intervention planning/delivery, and documentation.  Special issues of health and social policies that govern healthcare practice and bioethics are presented.

SOWK 430
Gerontology - Social Work with Elderly
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students examine a broad range of theories and contemporary issues in aging that relate to social work practice with older adults and their families from a strength-based perspective, using theoretical, research and practice knowledge. Specific consideration is given to heterogeneity of the older adult and aging population in the areas of age, gender, race and ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, religious, physical or mental disability, and national origin. Anti-oppressive practice, sustainable social work practice, evidence-based practice, and capacity building are highlighted throughout the course. Course content also includes social work skills in interdisciplinary treatment approaches, collaborating within communities, cultural competency, and ethical and legal issues.

SOWK 431
Addictions
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course pursues a critical analysis of the evolution of the addiction field of study in Canadian social work practice. It is designed to facilitate student learning about the developmental course of addiction (personal and societal) and the effective interventions and treatment modalities typically employed by the social work profession. The science and culture surrounding substances are addressed. Specific vulnerable/marginalized populations, the role of stigma in accessing and providing care, and the individual, familial, and community manifestation of the consequences of addiction are also discussed.Students explore and critically analyze the policy that governs the addiction treatment system. How addiction is defined on an individual, community and societal level will be examined in order to facilitate a critique of the system. The focus of study will be generated from a social justice, anti-oppressive and strengths-based lens.

SOWK 432
Social Work Practice in Health and Mental Health Settings
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course introduces students to the practice of social work in health and mental health settings. Social work roles are examined in the context of the various settings of health care (including acute care, long term care, community care, prevention, and rehabilitation). Students become familiar with the varying health needs of clients over the lifespan from birth to death. Social work’s contribution to the changing dynamics of the health care team are explored from the historical, current day, and future perspectives. Social work values, especially those of autonomy, self-determination, and social justice, are critiqued within the context of family centered care. Current Canadian and Albertan Healthcare policy is examined within the context of its sustainability.

SOWK 433
Social Work Practice with Gender and Sexual Diversity
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course focuses on developing affirmative social work practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, Two-Spirit, queer, questioning and asexual (LGBTQA)people. Social work professional roles are examined within the context of heteronormativity, queer theory, structural practice and social justice. Students become familiar with the intersectionality of sexuality, gender, race and age, examine federal and provincial legislation, and the history of queer rights. Students learn to critically analyze agencies, institutions and direct practice models, and become familiar with social work practice in the LGBTQA community. Opportunities are provided for learners to explore their own identity, values and beliefs and develop a personal frame of practice.

SOWK 434
International Social Work
3 Credits

This course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to International Social Work and integrated perspectives approach that blends globalization, human rights, ecological, and social development theories. Under the main themes of globalization, it covers theories underpinning International Social Work history and current realities of the global profession, global ethics, and global policy by exploring international social work practice with particular attention to health and mental health, children and families, urban indigenous people, social and environmental sustainability, and community work in local, national and international settings.

SOWK 438
Child Welfare
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

Students investigate the social work field of child welfare and examine issues related to child abuse and challenges facing families. Students engage in a critical examination of the need for child protection, related historical, legal and ethical issues and recent research findings that both highlight contemporary challenges as well as inform best practices in child protection. The role of child protection systems and helping professionals related to child and family welfare in Canadian society are examined.

SOWK 440
Grief and Loss in Social Work Practice
3 Credits          Weekly (3-0-0)

This course provides an overview of historical and contemporary theories of loss and relates it to social work practice. The course explores the broad meanings and applications of grief theory using a constructivist point of view including how individuals, families, and cultures experience the trauma of loss. Students learn through experiential modalities.

SOWK 442
Social Work Practice with High Risk Youth
3 Credits

This course focuses on a subset of the youth population, “high-risk youth,” that face particular and acute challenges. The course provides an overview of a relationship-based practice framework and philosophy, and provides strategies for engaging and working with the most disconnected, challenging and troubled youth in society, incorporating harm reduction and strength-based and resiliency approaches, as well as community collaboration strategies and anti-oppressive perspectives. Students analyze and critique this and traditional models of practice while developing their own practice for engaging and working with this population.

SOWK 450
Field Practicum
8 Credits          Total (0-0-400)

This course is an opportunity for students to further their previous field practice experience in a more challenging social work practice setting.  Students are placed in human service organizations under the supervision and support of both their field placement supervisor and their faculty liaison. The focus of field placement is to develop social work skills, examine practice from an ethical perspective, consider the impact of personal experiences/history and develop a professional social work identity.  In this field placement, students further integrate social work knowledge (theory ethics, values), develop competent social work skills and examine their practice from an ethical perspective.

Prerequisites: SOWK 350 and SOWK 351 for University transfer pathway students only.

Co-requisites: SOWK 410 or SOWK 411 or SOWK 412 or SOWK 413 and SOWK 451.

SOWK 451
Field Practicum Seminar
1 Credit          Total (0-0-12.5)

The field practicum seminar provides an opportunity for the student to discuss experiences in placement and to apply social work theory to their field experiences.  The focus of the course is the integration of theory and practice, to develop social work skills, to examine practice from an ethical perspective, to consider the impact of personal experiences/history and to develop a professional identity. Students utilize the seminar to discuss ethical issues in practice and they have opportunities to discuss competency in applying a theoretical framework to reflect on their practice.   Students critically engage in self-reflection, analyze their practice and engage in a small group process to problem solve and to enhance their professional self.  In this advanced seminar, students are expected to provide leadership, be prepared to critically reflect and problem solve.  Students are expected to have an integrated professional identity.

Prerequisites: SOWK 350 and SOWK 351 for University transfer pathway students only.

Co-requisites: SOWK 450.