Academic Calendar

Economics - Bachelor of Arts

Overview

Economics is about so much more than just money and wealth – it offers a way of making the best possible use of resources. Study financial markets, governments and policies, growth, environmental issues, inequality, and globalization. Sharpen your critical thinking skills and expand your mind. By the end of your economics degree, you will have a strong grounding in all the economic principles and theories that will help you pursue your occupation or further your education into graduate studies and beyond.

Contact Information

Department of Anthropology, Economics, and Political Science
Room 7-368, City Centre Campus
10700 - 104 Avenue
Edmonton, AB T5J 4S2
T: 780-633-3890

Arts and Science Academic Advising
Room 6-211, City Centre Campus
T: 780-497-4505
E: artsandscience@macewan.ca

The Bachelor of Arts

Faculty of Arts and Science
MacEwan.ca/BA

MacEwan University’s Bachelor of Arts (BA) provides a liberal arts education that allows students to explore a variety of academic disciplines and acquire a broad knowledge base that will prepare them for employment or future post-secondary studies. The degree provides students with breadth, depth, and diversity in the humanities, sciences, social sciences, analytical studies, and fine arts, as well as courses focused on language and literature. BA students study subjects in major and/or minor disciplines and must be familiar with the academic and Faculty regulations and procedures published herein.

General Program Information

The BA program requires students to complete 120 credits of non-duplicative coursework. The degree emphasizes breadth and depth and has been designed for exceptional flexibility and customization. Students can complete a major and a minor, a double major, or a major and two minors. Students can choose a secondary major in an Arts or Science discipline, but the primary major must be in an Arts discipline.

All newly admitted students enter the BA program as “Undeclared.”  Undeclared means a student has not yet chosen their major(s) and minor(s). Students may declare any time after being accepted to the BA, and typically, they declare after completing a minimum of 45 credits. The declaration period for noncompetitive majors and minors is between September 1 and February 15 and between September 1 and January 15 for competitive majors and minors. The Arts and Science Academic Advising Office will send information about majors and minors via email and newsletters; please contact the Advising Office if you require further assistance with this decision.

Arts Disciplines

Discipline Major Minor Honours
Anthropology ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
Classics - ⦿ -
Creative Writing - ⦿ -
Economics ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
English ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
Film Minor for Arts and Science ⦿
French - ⦿ -
Gender Studies - ⦿ -
History ⦿ ⦿ -
Philosophy ⦿ ⦿ -
Political Science ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
Psychology ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
Sociology ⦿ ⦿ ⦿
Spanish - ⦿ -

Science Disciplines 

Discipline Major Minor
Applied Statistics ⦿
Biological Sciences ⦿ ⦿
Chemistry ⦿ ⦿
Computer Science ⦿ ⦿
Earth and Planetary Sciences ⦿
Mathematics ⦿ ⦿
Physics ⦿
Planetary Physics ⦿
Statistics ⦿

Out of Faculty Minors

Discipline Minor
Accounting Minor for Arts and Science ⦿
Arts and Cultural Management ⦿
Business Law ⦿
Business Studies ⦿
Digital Experience Design ⦿
Finance Minor for Arts and Science ⦿
Human Resources Minor for Arts and Science ⦿
Marketing Minor for Arts and Science ⦿

Pre-Qualifying Minor Requirements for MacEwan Diploma Graduates Entering the Bachelor of Arts

Students who graduated with a MacEwan University diploma can enter the Bachelor of Arts, assess their course work based on the Cross-Faculty Course Recognition List (refer to the Bachelor of Arts Requirement tab), and use their diploma in place of a minor requirement. This process reduces the number of credits required for the degree from 120 to 102, depending on the courses completed. If accepted, these students will be required to complete only a major as the minor will be waived. To qualify for this process, students must have started their diploma no earlier than Fall 2004. At this time, the Travel and Office Administration diplomas are excluded from this offer. If you have questions or concerns about courses on the Cross-Faculty Course Recognition List, please contact artsandscience@macewan.ca.

Preparing for Professional Studies

Students intending to enter professional programs at other universities, such as law and education, can take their pre-professional studies in the Faculty of Arts and Science at MacEwan University. For example, a selection of courses facilitates the transition to an after-degree education program or, if the student prefers, transfer to a Bachelor of Education program after completing as many as 60 credits of coursework. Students are advised to consult the admissions requirements for the universities and programs of their choice and to select their MacEwan University courses accordingly. Completing pre-professional courses at MacEwan University does not guarantee admission to the subsequent professional program. Each professional program requires a separate application, and entry is competitive, not automatic.

Degree Requirements

Breadth Requirements

 All Bachelor of Arts degrees require Breadth Requirements. Courses can satisfy both the breadth requirements and requirements for the major(s), minor(s), Honours, or options. 

Breadth Element Description Credits
Literacy ENGL 102 and 3 credits in university English (not including ENGL 111, ENGL 108, or ENGL 211), and 6 credits in a single language other than English or 6 credits in world literature (COMP 102 and COMP 103) 12
Humanities CLAS, HIST, HUMN, or PHIL 6
Sciences ASTR, BICM, BIOL, BOTN, CHEM, CMPT, EASC, GENE, PHYS, PSYC, SCIE, or ZOOL 6
Social Sciences ANTH, ECON, GEND, POLS, PSYC, or SOCI 6
Analytical Studies LING 101, MATH, PHIL 125, or STAT 3
Fine Arts AGAD, ARTE, CRWR, DESN, DRMA, MUSC, THAR, THPR, CLAS 252, CLAS 352, CLAS 353, or CLAS 356 3

Bachelor of Arts Degree 

Program Element Description Credits
Primary Major The Arts major will range from 42 to 60 credits with a minimum 36 credits taken at the senior-level. 42-60
Secondary Major or Minor(s) Students have the option of completing a second major in an Arts or Science discipline, or one or two minors. Minor courses must be completed at the senior-level. 18-60
Options Students can complete up to 15 credits in out-of-faculty options, with no more than 3 credits in physical activity (PACT) courses. Up to 60
Total Degree Credits Including Breadth 120
 
 
 

Bachelor of Arts Honours 

Program Element Description Credits
Minimum Honour Requirements Honours requirements are determined by each discipline. 63
Option Courses, Non-Compulsory Honours Courses, and/or a Minor Students have the option of completing a minor from outside of the Honours discipline. Some disciplines may require a minor. 57
Total Degree Credits 120

The minimum passing grade for a course at MacEwan University is a D unless otherwise noted next to the appropriate course in the program of study. In the Faculty of Arts and Science, students typically require a minimum grade of C- to use a course as a prerequisite. Please check course descriptions for more information.

 

Cross-Faculty Course Recognitions 

Cross-Faculty course recognition represents an agreement between programs within MacEwan University and consists of a number of approved courses that have the potential to be recognized within another degree. These courses are not considered transfers or equivalents as the original course will show within a student's transcript and their Academic Planning and Progress Report (APPR). How the courses listed below might be used within a student’s degree are determined by the student’s program of study. They are dependent on a number of factors including year of declaration, year of completion, and individual program requirements.

Out-of-Faculty Course Course Recognition Course Used For
ACUP 117 ARTOP 1XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ACUP 209 SCIOP 2XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
ACUP 220, ACUP 303, and ACUP 304 (must complete all three) COSL 200 (6 credits) Options
ACUP 320 SCIOP 3XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
AGAD 300 COSL 300 Options
AGAD 435 WINL 300 Options
ARTE 104 ARTOP 1XX Options
ARTE 214 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ARTE 224 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ARTE 234 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ARTE 304 ARTOP 3XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ARTE 314 ARTOP 3XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ARTE 324 ARTOP 3XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
CORR 102 SOCI 1XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CORR 104 SOCI 1XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CORR 110 SOCI 225 Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CORR 120 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CORR 202 ARTOP 2XX Options
CORR 208 ARTOP 2XX Options
CORR 214 COSL 200 Options
CORR 218 SOCI 321 Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CORR 224 COSL 200 Options
CYCW 100 PSYC 2XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
CYCW 108 and CYCW 112 SOCI 1XX Options; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CYCW 114 ARTOP 1XX Options
CYCW 201 PSYC 2XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
CYCW 204 COSL 200 Options
CYCW 205 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CYCW 208 COSL 200 Options
CYCW 211 PSYC 2XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
CYCW 302 ARTOP 3XX Options
CYCW 303 ARTOP 3XX Options
CYCW 339 ARTOP 3XX Options
CYCW 340 SOCI 3XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CYCW 350 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CYCW 360 SOCI 3XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
CYCW 361 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
DESN 270 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
DESN 271 ARTOP2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
ECCS 110 PSYC 1XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
ECCS 115 ARTOP 1XX Options
ECCS 160 PSYC 2XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
ECCS 180 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
ECCS 220 COSL 200 Options
ECCS 255 ARTOP 2XX Options
ECCS 260 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
ECCS 270 COSL 200 Options
ECDV 160 ARTOP 1XX Options
ECDV 220 COSL 200 Options
ECDV 255 ARTOP 2XX Options
ECDV 260 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
ECDV 270 COSL 270 Options
ECDV 280 PSYC 2XX Options or Psychology program requirements; fulfills Social Science or Science Breadth
FNCE 301 ECON 3XX Options or Economics program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breath
HAPR 101 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
HAPR 104 ARTOP 1XX Options
HAPR 114 WINL 200 Options
HAPR 201 ARTOP 2XX Options
HAPR 212 WINL 200 Options
HEED 110 ARTOP 1XX Options
HEED 120 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 104 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 105 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 120 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 124 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 126 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
HLSC 128 BIOL 2XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
HLST 150 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
HLST 210 ARTOP 2XX Options
HLST 290 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
INFM 101 ARTOP 1XX Options
INFM 202 ARTOP 2XX Options
INFM 208 ARTOP 2XX Options
INFM 209 ARTOP 2XX Options
INFM 210 ARTOP 2XX Options
INFM 260 COSL 200 Options
INTA 210 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
INTA 362 ARTOP 3XX Options
MTST 120 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
MTST 122 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
MTST 125 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
MTST 126 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
MTST 151, MTST 162, MTST 260, MTST 261, and MTST 262 COSL 200 Options
MUSC 104 ARTOP 1XX Options; fulfills Analytical Studies Breadth
MUSC 123 ARTOP 1XX Options; fulfills Social Science Breadth
MUSC 124 ARTOP 1XX Options; fulfills Social Science Breadth
PEDS 100 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 101 BIOL 1XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 103 BIOL 2XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 109 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 200 BIOL 2XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 203 SCIOP 2XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 206 BIOL 2XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 207 BIOL 2XX Options or Biological Sciences program requirements; fulfills Science Breadth
PEDS 209 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Analytical Studies Breadth
PEDS 240 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
PERL 104 ARTOP 1XX Options
PERL 204 ARTOP 2XX Options
PERL 207 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 102 ARTOP 1XX Options
PSSC 112 ARTOP 1XX Options
PSSC 121 SOCI 1XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
PSSC 203 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 204 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 212 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 252 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 253 ARTOP 2XX Options
PSSC 272 COSL 200 Options
PSSC 273 COSL 200 Options
SOWK 101 ARTOP 1XX Options, fulfills Humanities Breadth
SOWK 111 ARTOP 1XX Options
SOWK 112 ARTOP 1XX Options
SOWK 203 ARTOP 2XX Options
SOWK 204 SOCI 2XX Options or Sociology program requirements; fulfills Social Science Breadth
TAST 101 ARTOP 1XX Options
TAST 129 and TAST 130 COSL 200 Options
THAR 240 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Analytical Studies Breadth
THAS 101 ARTOP 1XX Options
THAS 102 SCIOP 1XX Options; fulfills Science Breadth
THAS 115 ARTOP 1XX Options
THAS 203 COSL 200 Options
THAS 210 COSL 200 Options
THAS 211 COSL 200 Options
THAS 215 COSL 200 Options
THAS 222 ARTOP 2XX Options
THPR 205 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
THPR 206 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Humanities Breadth
THPR 214 ARTOP 2XX Options; fulfills Analytical Studies Breadth
THPR 224 COSL 200 Options

Economics Requirements

Economics Major

Economics Honours

Economics Minor

Economics Major

The Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Economics program requires students to complete 120 credits of non-duplicative coursework. In addition to the Economics Major, students will complete one of the following:

  • one minor,
  • two minors, or
  • a secondary Arts major

Students are required to complete option courses as well as the major(s) and minor(s). All BA degrees require Breadth Requirements. Courses can satisfy both the breadth requirements and requirements for the major(s), minor(s), or options.

The Economics Major is 42 to 60 non-duplicative economics credits with a minimum 36 credits at the senior-level. Students must complete a minimum of six ECON credits at the 400-level; ECON 401 and ECON 497 do not satisfy this requirement.

STAT 151 or STAT 161 are required for this major. Students with credit for MATH 114 are not required to complete ECON 289.

Bachelor of Arts - Economics Major
Specific Major Requirements
ECON 101Introduction to Microeconomics3
ECON 102Introduction to Macroeconomics3
ECON 281Intermediate Microeconomics3
ECON 282Intermediate Macroeconomics3
ECON 289Introduction to Mathematical Economics3
ECON 299Quantitative Methods in Economics3
ECON 399Introductory Econometrics3
ECON 497Economic Analysis: A Capstone Seminar3
Choose 6 credits from the following:6
Economics at Work: Reasoning and Writing in Economics
Contemporary Canadian Economic Issues
Microeconomic Theory
Macroeconomic Theory
General Major Requirements
Choose 12 to 30 credits from senior-level ECON with a minimum of 6 credits at the 400-level.12-30
Secondary Major or Minor(s)
Students have the option of completing a second Arts major, or one or two minors. Minor courses must be completed at the senior-level.18-60
Options
Students can complete up to 15 credits in out-of-faculty options, with no more than 3 credits in physical activity (PACT) courses.0-60
Total Credits120

Economics Honours 

The Bachelor of Arts (BA) Economics Honours degree program requires students to complete 120 credits of non-duplicative coursework. The Economics Honours program is comprised of 63 to 72 credits. Student must complete a minimum of 12 ECON credits at the 400-level including ECON 499.

STAT 151 or STAT 161, and MATH 114 are required for the Economics Honours program. It is recommended that students complete ECON 281ECON 282, and STAT 151 before they declare Economics Honours. Students should be aware that if they do not complete ECON 289, they will be required to complete either MATH 120 or MATH 125 with a minimum grade of C-. 

For consideration of admittance/acceptance into Economics Honours, students must present the following:

  1. Completion of a minimum of 45 university-level credits applicable to the program of study, with a GPA of 3.0 or higher
  2. 24 of the 45 credits must have been completed in the last 12 months
  3. A minimum of six ECON credits completed at the senior-level
  4. A minimum GPA of 3.3 across all senior-level ECON courses

Students accepted and enrolled in the Economics Honours program must maintain a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. As well, students must maintain a minimum GPA of 3.3 across all senior-level ECON courses for each 12 consecutive months following acceptance into the Honours program. Failure to do so will result in the student's program status reverting to a BA Economics Major.

Students have the option of completing a minor within the requirements of the Economics Honours program. Minors are comprised of 18 senior-level credits. All BA degrees, including Honours, require Breadth Requirements. Courses can be used to satisfy both the breadth requirements and requirements for Honours, minor(s), or options.

Bachelor of Art - Economics Honours
Specific Honours Requirements
ECON 101Introduction to Microeconomics3
ECON 102Introduction to Macroeconomics3
ECON 281Intermediate Microeconomics3
ECON 282Intermediate Macroeconomics3
ECON 299Quantitative Methods in Economics3
ECON 384Microeconomic Theory3
ECON 385Macroeconomic Theory3
ECON 389Mathematical Economics3
ECON 399Introductory Econometrics3
ECON 499Honours Thesis3
General Honours Requirements
Choose 33 to 42 credits from senior-level ECON, with a minimum of 9 credits at the 400-level, in consultation with the economics Honours advisor.33-42
Option Courses and/or a Minor
Students can complete up to 15 credits in out-of-faculty options, with no more than 3 credits in physical activity (PACT) courses.48-57
Total Credits120

Economics Minor 

The Economics Minor requires 18 senior-level ECON credits. A minimum of six credits must be completed at the 300- or 400-level; ECON 401 does not satisfy this requirement. Junior-level ECON 101 and ECON 102 are required.

Specific Minor Requirements
ECON 281Intermediate Microeconomics3
ECON 282Intermediate Macroeconomics3
Choose 3 credits from the following:3
Economics at Work: Reasoning and Writing in Economics
Contemporary Canadian Economic Issues
General Minor Requirements
Choose 9 credits from senior-level ECON9
Total Credits18

Degree Regulations

Students are strongly encouraged to seek advice from the academic advisors about academic planning for completing degree requirements at MacEwan University.

Academic Residency - Credit Requirements

In addition to the academic residency requirements of the University, upon admission to the Bachelor of Arts (BA), students also must complete at MacEwan University:

  • A minimum of 24 credits at the senior-level in the major discipline, with 12 of those senior credits completed at the 300- or 400-level. All 400-level requirements are to be completed at MacEwan University.
  • If applicable, a minimum of nine credits at the senior-level in a minor, with at least three of those credits at the 300- or 400- level.

Students with a previous MacEwan University credential are required to complete a minimum of 45 credits upon admission to the BA.

Students who hold a baccalaureate degree from another post-secondary institution must complete a minimum of 60 additional MacEwan University credits applicable to the BA. Forty-five of these credits must be completed while the students is enrolled in the BA. This credit requirement applies to students who began their studies at MacEwan University and completed a credential at another institution.

Students who interrupt their program and who must apply for readmission to the program will be required to comply with any new regulations upon resumption of their studies.

Breadth Requirements

Courses taken to fulfil major, minor, or option requirements can also be used to satisfy breadth requirements.

Declaration of a Major and a Minor

Students are advised to declare a primary major and a minor, or a primary major and secondary major, or a primary major and two minors by the time they have completed 45 credits. Primary majors are selected from Arts disciplines and consist of 42 to 60 junior- and senior-level credits; secondary majors can be from an Arts or a Science discipline. Students cannot declare a multi-disciplinary science major (Mathematical or Physical Science majors). Except for those students in an Honours program, a maximum of 60 credits may be completed from any one discipline for credit towards the degree. A major and minor cannot be in the same discipline and students may not declare more than one out-of-faculty minor. Students can re-declare their major(s) and/or minor(s) if required.

For students completing multiple majors or minors, the Faculty cannot guarantee a schedule of classes that will permit the student to complete their degree in eight consecutive fall and winter semesters. Furthermore, depending on the configuration of the student's degree, meeting the requirements for the degree may require the completion of more than 120 credits for graduation. Students are strongly encouraged to consult with an academic advisor in the Faculty of Arts and Science Advising Office and a discipline advisor in their major and minor disciplines prior to declaration.

Restricted Enrolment Courses

The Faculty of Arts and Science strives to accommodate all students wishing to enrol in a given course when it is appropriate to their own program: however, classes in some courses must, for academic reasons, be restricted in size. If such a course is found to be oversubscribed, priority in registration will be given to those students whose programs may require it (e.g., majors, Honours, and/or minors) and then to other students as space permits.

Graduation Grade Point Average

As part of the Graduation Grade Point Average regulation above, Bachelor of Arts students must obtain an overall GGPA of 2.0 or higher, with a minimum GPA of 2.0 on all courses credited toward the major(s) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 on all courses credited toward the minor(s).

Graduation Requirements

Graduation requirements are governed by the date on which students declare their major(s) and minor(s). Students who declare their major(s) and minor(s) on or before the published deadline are bound by the requirements of the current academic year. Those students who declare after the published deadline are bound by the programs of study and degree requirements of the upcoming academic year as published in the MacEwan University Academic Calendar.

Junior- and Senior-Level Courses

Courses numbered from 100 to 199 are considered junior-level and courses numbered from 200 to 499 are considered senior-level.

Major or Minor 300- and 400-Level Requirements

The 300- and 400-level requirements in the major or minor cannot consist solely of project, field placement, and/or individual study courses.

Maximum Independent Courses

The maximum number of credits for independent work (project, field placement, and/or individual study courses), excluding the Honours Thesis, is 15 credits. Specific disciplines may have further restrictions.

Maximum Junior-Level Courses

A maximum of 48 credits at the 100-level are permitted in completion of the BA degree. Additional courses at the 100-level will be declared extra to the 120 credits required to complete the BA degree and will not be counted toward fulfilment of graduation requirements.

Minimum Arts Courses

Students are required to complete successfully a minimum of 72 credits from Arts courses.

Minimum Passing Grade

A minimum grade of D or credit (CR) is required for all Arts degree courses unless otherwise noted next to the appropriate course in the program of study. 

Minimum Transfer Grade for Credit

A minimum grade of D is required on any transfer credit granted for the program. Unless otherwise stated, Arts and Science courses require a minimum grade of C- when the course is used as a prerequisite. Transfer credit decisions made by the university are final and cannot be appealed.

Out-of-Faculty Options Requirements

Students may take a maximum of 18 credits from courses offered by a MacEwan University Faculty or School other than Arts and Science. Students completing an out-of-Faculty minor or laddering students who have met the minor requirements with a MacEwan University diploma must complete their degree requirements from courses offered within the Faculty of Arts and Science or from the list of Cross-Faculty Course Recognitions in the Academic Calendar. Courses deemed as Cross-Faculty Course Recognitions are used to fulfill in-Faculty courses within the BA and do not count as out-of-Faculty options. Fine arts courses taken to fulfil breadth requirements count as in-Faculty credit.

Progression of Studies

Students are responsible for ensuring they meet the prerequisite and/or co-requisite requirements as noted on all courses that may fulfil Bachelor of Arts or Arts Honours program requirements.

Honours Regulations

Overall Requirements

The Honours program of study consists of 63 to 84 credits as determined by the discipline. Students in the Honours program may choose to complete a minor outside of the Honours discipline. Some disciplines may require a minor.

Acceptance to Honours

For consideration of admittance/acceptance into Honours, students must present a minimum of 45 university-level credits applicable to the program of study, with a GPA of 3.0 or higher. They must complete 24 of the 45 credits in the last 12 months; however, exceptions to this rule may occur with the approval of the Honours discipline advisor. Individual departments may have additional requirements noted in their program of study.

Course Load

Students accepted into an Honours program must complete 24-credits in each twelve consecutive months they are in the program. Exceptions to this rule may occur with the approval of the Honours discipline advisor.

Grade Point Average Requirement

Students accepted and enrolled in the Arts Honours program must maintain a minimum overall GPA of 3.0 across all courses in the degree. As well, students must maintain a minimum GPA of 3.3 across a set of courses designated by each discipline for each twelve consecutive months following acceptance into the Honours program. Failure to do so will result in the student’s program status reverting to a BA with a major in the previous honours discipline.

Graduation Grade Point Average

In order to graduate, students must obtain an overall GGPA of 3.0 or higher, with a minimum GPA of 3.3 across a set of courses designated by each discipline.

Program Learning Outcomes

Faculty of Arts and Science Degree-Level Learning Outcomes

Thinking about knowledge is at the core of University education and learning within the Faculty of Arts and Science. Students develop capacities to “think-through” - to practice wonder, reflection, and engage in thoughtful inquiry and dialogue. Thinking-through involves questioning beyond the confines of one's immediate personal, social, and disciplinary surroundings. First, knowledge is acquired and understood. Learning moves beyond acquiring information and data to a formally disciplined manner of thinking about knowledge. Next, knowledge is interrogated by asking and answering questions, distinguishing between opinion and knowledge, and developing tools to assess reasons and evidence. Finally, knowledge is synthesized as students develop coherent arguments, and link ideas together beyond what is immediately apparent. Learning is a lifelong creative process of discovery and action that happens beyond the classroom and the degree. Our graduates interact with and contribute to their community by integrating and applying the research and communication skills and ways of knowing developed through their education. Learning outcomes capture the observable knowledge, skills, and abilities graduates acquire that are the foundation of learning.

Graduates will demonstrate their ability to “think-through” by:

  1. Analysing puzzles, problems, concepts, and theories.
  2. Conceptualizing questions based on disciplinary knowledge.
  3. Evaluating knowledge within and across disciplines in ways that acknowledge historical, cultural, and social contexts.

Graduates will demonstrate research and scholarship skills by:

  1. Applying appropriate research skills and ethical principles.
  2. Interpreting results appreciating the value and limits of conclusions.
  3. Recognizing how research involves an ongoing process of reflection, dialogue, and reassessment.

Graduates will demonstrate diverse skills for communication by:

  1. Conveying complex ideas coherently in a variety of formats.
  2. Appraising information in ways that consider context and audience.
  3. Interpreting the ideas and arguments of others in ways that reflect their knowledge, judgement, and comprehension.

Graduates will demonstrate durable skills necessary for learning beyond their degree by:

  1. Collaborating with diverse groups.
  2. Examining different perspectives and challenging biases and preconceptions.
  3. Exploring the continuous impact and limitations of disciplinary knowledge and expertise.

Economics Major Program Learning Outcomes

At various stages of course completion, students taking Economics courses should be able to satisfactorily perform the tasks mentioned in the following Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs). Each PLO combines a broad content area (such as principles, theory, and data) with several Bloom-type cognitive categories. Some of the PLOs are preceded by a preamble, which provides context, guidance, and rationale. 

PLO 1—Principles 
Reproduce and explain the main economic principles such as scarcity, tradeoffs, incentives, and gains from trade. Identify and define the main economic concepts, such as growth, inflation, and unemployment. Describe big contemporary problems, such as climate change, population growth, inequality, and migration. Summarize opposing views concerning the role of government in the economy. Solve old and new problems using economic principles and basic models. Discuss economic topics from broader (alternative) perspectives. Routinely invoke facts to create context and to construct arguments. Reproduce and discuss facts such as inflation targets, monetary policy rates, long-term growth rates, approximate GDP levels, the level of the global population, inequality levels, and poverty rates. Summarize and discuss important events such as the industrial revolution and the great depression. Describe the economic roles of various institutions such as markets, companies, the Bank of Canada, the financial system, or governments. Predict the effects of consequential events such as market disturbances or changes in public policies. Describe and discuss both Canadian and global economic issues. 

PLO 2—Theory
Explain, with examples, what a theoretical model is. Expose the limitations of making decisions based on economic theories. Reproduce and explain specific models, presented in mathematical or narrative form. Translate an economic problem into a known mathematical model, resolve it, and discuss its implications. Choose a suitable model (analytical tool) to answer a question. Propose solutions to new problems based on existing theoretical models. Identify, evaluate, and compare various models. Debate the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions. Discuss the nature and the role of external (empirical) validation of theoretical models.

PLO 3—Data 
Our graduates’ potential employers place a high value on quantitative skills such as handling, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. 

Reproduce and explain statistical and econometric concepts and models such as random variable, random sample, estimator, sampling distribution, linear and logistic regression, p-value, and the two types of errors. Locate and manipulate data in view of statistical and econometric analysis. Detect and address the problems of missing values and outliers in data. Present data in summary statistics and charts. Infer population parameters. Based on economic theories, formulate and test hypotheses. Interpret the results of statistical and econometric analysis, both in natural and standardized units. Distinguish between statistical significance and substantive, or practical importance. Construct arguments along the lines of the scientific method. Use dedicated econometric software.

PLO 4—Critical thinking
A common misunderstanding in today’s education is that students do not need to remember facts because facts are easy to find. This misconception limits a person’s ability to debate in real-time. Also, not having all the pieces of a puzzle in one’s mind limits a person’s creativity and reasoning power.

Explain the economic way of thinking. Evaluate and debate known and new issues, using economic principles, economic theoretical results, and empirical findings. Explain the limitations of a purely economic approach to complex problems. 

PLO 5—Communicate
The importance of good communication skills cannot be overemphasized. Not only stands it prominently on an employer’s need list, but it enriches an individual’s life. All courses having a writing part enforce good writing. Likewise, many courses encourage public speech and presentation.

Communicate economic matter in speech, writing, and diverse media. Some essentials of good writing may include the following: identify and summarize an issue of interest to the profession, to the community, or to the public; construct a thesis that constitutes the backbone of the written piece; organize the text in paragraphs, each paragraph supporting only one clear argument, directly or indirectly related to the thesis; eliminate unnecessary words, sentences, and paragraphs; provide, however, as much content as necessary; review, revise, rethink, and rewrite your text as many times as it takes to make it cohesive, coherent, and clear; seek, accept, and respond to criticism and suggestions for improvement. Specific courses may emphasize different aspects of communicating.

PLO 6—General
Social interaction skills are important both for individuals and society. One may think that the burden of educating the students in this area falls not on the program, but on the university, through various requirements and policies. Arguably, though, the program still has an essential role in the matter because it is at the program and course level where such skills can be best observed and assessed.

Locate and follow instructions, policies, rules, and recommendations that govern your activity, workplace, class, or university. Meet deadlines. Respect a person of authority or expertise. Respect a peer, even when disagreeing. Carefully ponder a question or comment before answering. Describe effective methods of lasting learning. Name your preferred economics authors and summarize their writings. Discuss current news from an economist’s viewpoint, at both Canadian and global levels. Behave ethically in learning, research, and profession.

Student Plan

  • The student plan provides a suggested course sequence with the minimum number of credits required for the major
  • The suggested course sequence depends on course availability, the student's schedule, and the student's choice of minor(s) or secondary major
  • It is highly recommended that students complete their Breadth Requirements by the end of year 2
Year 1Credits
ECON 1013
ECON 1023
ENGL 1023
Choose 3 credits (1 course) from the following:3
Breadth Requirements18
 30
Year 2Credits
ECON 2813
ECON 2823
ECON 2893
ECON 2993
Breadth, Option, Minor(s), or Primary or Secondary Major Requirements18
 30
Year 3Credits
ECON 3993
Choose 6 credits (2 courses) from the following:6
Choose 6 credits (2 courses) from senior-level ECON6
Options, Minor(s), or Primary or Secondary Major Requirements15
 30
Year 4Credits
ECON 4973
Choose 6 credits (2 courses) from 400-level ECON6
Options, Minor(s), or Primary or Secondary Major Requirements21
 30
Total Credits 120

Expected Course Offerings

Following is a list of expected course offerings for fall 2023 and winter 2024. We will update the list with expected courses scheduled for fall 2024 and winter 2025 in February 2023. While some might change, students can be assured that required courses will be available.

Fall 2023
Introduction to Microeconomics
Introduction to Macroeconomics
Introduction to Data Wrangling: Collecting, Cleaning, and Presenting Data
Intermediate Microeconomics
Intermediate Macroeconomics
Introduction to Mathematical Economics
International Economics
Urban Economics
Money and Banking
Taxation Policy and Structure
Topics in Applied Economics
Resource Economics
Macroeconomic Theory
Mathematical Economics
Introductory Econometrics
Development Economics
Winter 2024
Introduction to Microeconomics
Introduction to Macroeconomics
Economic Aspects of the European Union
The Economics of Gender
Intermediate Microeconomics
Intermediate Macroeconomics
Economics at Work: Reasoning and Writing in Economics
Quantitative Methods in Economics
Contemporary Canadian Economic Issues
Money and Banking
Fundamentals of Policy Analysis
Economics of Public Expenditure
Economics of Project Evaluation
Economics of the Environment
Microeconomic Theory
Field Placement
International Trade
Economics of Financial Markets
Advanced Macroeconomic Theory
Economic Analysis: A Capstone Seminar
 

Admission Requirements

Applicants may be admitted to one of the following:

Regular Admission 

To be evaluated through the Office of the University Registrar

Applicants must have a minimum overall average of 65 percent, with no course grade lower than 50 percent, in the following high school courses:

  1. ELA 30-1
  2. Four subjects from Group A, B, C, or D

Notes:

  • Applicants are strongly encouraged to present a broad range of subjects in order to benefit from the breadth of learning and to increase flexibility of future program and course choices.
  • A maximum of two Group B subjects may be presented; they must be from different disciplines.
  • A maximum of one Group D subject may be presented. Group D subjects used for admission must be 5-credit or any credit combination of at least 5 credits (e.g., two 3-credit subjects).
  • Mathematics 30-1 or 30-2 is required for a major in Economics.
  • Mathematics 30-1 or 31 is required for Economics Honours.
  • Mathematics 30-1 or 30-2 is required for a major in Psychology.

Applicants with nine to 23 university-level credits must also present a minimum Admission Grade Point Average (AGPA) of 2.0 on a 4.0 scale. Applicants with 24 or more university-level credits will be considered under Previous Post-Secondary Work.

Mature Admission

To be evaluated through the Office of the University Registrar

Applicants must be Canadian Applicants, 20 years of age or older, and have been out of full-time high school at least one year by the beginning of the intake term. Applicants must have the following:

  • ELA 30-1 with a minimum grade of 65 percent (or equivalent)

OR

  • Three credits of university-level English, including ENGL 111 from MacEwan University, with a minimum grade of C.

Applicants with nine to 23 university-level credits must also present a minimum Admission Grade Point Average (AGPA) of 2.0 on a 4.0 scale. Applicants with 24 or more university-level credits will be considered under Previous Post-Secondary Work.

Previous Post-Secondary Work

To be evaluated through the Office of the University Registrar

Admission in this category does not imply or guarantee the transfer of any coursework and/or credential unless a block transfer agreement (internal or external) is in effect and published in the calendar by the Office of the University Registrar. In addition, transfer of coursework does not imply or guarantee that an applicant will be admitted.

Applicants must have successfully completed the following from a recognized institution:

  • A minimum of 24 university-level credits with a minimum Admission Grade Point Average (AGPA) of 2.0 on a 4.0 scale.

Additional Admission Criteria

All applicants must meet the following:

1. English Language Proficiency

To be evaluated through the Office of the University Registrar

Applicable to all admission categories

All applicants must meet an acceptable level of English language proficiency. We will require official documents such as high school or post-secondary transcripts or proof of successful completion of standardized language evaluation. Full details are available in MacEwan University’s academic calendar or online at MacEwan.ca/ELP.

2. Other Admission Criteria

To be evaluated through the Office of the University Registrar

Applicable to all admission categories

Applicants who have been assigned two unsatisfactory academic records within the past five years will not be considered for admission or re-admission to the program until a minimum three years from the date of the assignment of the last unsatisfactory academic record. For the purpose of admission or re-admission, an unsatisfactory record is defined as a transcript with the notation ‘required to withdraw’ or equivalent.

Economics Courses

ECON 101
Introduction to Microeconomics
3 Credits

This course will provide an introductory investigation to supply and demand analysis; the theory of production, costs, and price determination under competitive and non-competitive market conditions. Emphasis is given to the Canadian Economy.

ECON 102
Introduction to Macroeconomics
3 Credits

Following a brief introduction to the discipline of economics, this course provides an introductory investigation of national income determinations, monetary and banking systems, and fiscal and monetary policies. Contemporary problems of unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates and international trade are analyzed. Emphasis is given to Canadian issues.

ECON 212
Economic Aspects of the European Union
3 Credits

This course focuses on the study of economic policies in the European Union (EU). Though the ideas of trade liberalization and economic integration are as old as economics itself, the ongoing process of integrating Europe is one of the most exciting experiences in human history. The European experience of economic, political, legal, and social integration is a unique opportunity to learn how these processes work and what their dangers are. This course concerns the economic foundations of the Union, as well as current issues.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101 and ECON 102.

ECON 213
Introduction to Economics of Developing Countries
3 Credits

This course is a survey of case studies from developing countries that focuses on the major approaches to, and problems of, economic development. It emphasizes issues relating to the concept and history of development; development strategies; poverty; population growth; trade, growth, macroeconomic management and globalization; role of institutions in development; linkages between environment and development; savings and investment; and foreign aid.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 102.

ECON 220
The Economics of Gender
3 Credits

This course is an analysis of general gender economic issues which can impact economic development around the world. The topics to be discussed will include educational achievement, labour market participation, earnings, socio-economic policies, and accessibility to technology based on different gender identities.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 102.

ECON 255
Introduction to Data Wrangling: Collecting, Cleaning, and Presenting Data
3 Credits

This course is an introduction to data analysis: finding, collecting, cleaning, exploring, visualizing, and presenting data. Students will apply the methods learned in this course to describe, interpret, and analyze practical economic problems. The course uses the R software for all purposes.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 101 or ECON 102.

ECON 261
Introduction to Agricultural Economics
3 Credits

This course introduces students to the basic economic concepts and issues related to agriculture and food, especially economic forces influencing the decisions of producers, consumers, and marketers of food, fiber, and other agricultural products. The interaction of agricultural production with environment in relation to sustainability and regional differences will also be addressed.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 281
Intermediate Microeconomics
3 Credits

Microeconomics aims at explaining phenomena such as changes in relative prices, but it is much more than that: it provides methods for making educated decisions in our day-to-day lives. To that end, it uses a set of principles, a reasoning framework, and a few mathematical models expressed in functions, equations, and graphs. Knowledge of algebra at a high-school level is strongly recommended.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 282
Intermediate Macroeconomics
3 Credits

Students explore topics such as models of price, interest rate, output, and employment determination; the impact of fiscal, monetary, and supply shocks; open economy macroeconomics with fixed and flexible exchange rates, and prices as well as international capital mobility.

Prerequisites: Minimum grades of C- in ECON 101 and ECON 102.

ECON 289
Introduction to Mathematical Economics
3 Credits

This course introduces students to mathematical framework for economic analysis. It examines the fundamental techniques of functions, matrix algebra, differentiation and integration in relation to their application to the concepts to economic analysis. Note: This course can be used to fulfill the arts credit requirements of the Bachelor of Arts and the science credit requirement of the Bachelor of Science.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 290
Economics at Work: Reasoning and Writing in Economics
3 Credits

Students review the tools of economic reasoning and use them to analyze a variety of micro- or macro-economic issues from an individual's perspective. Instruction emphasizes high student engagement both in class and with home assignments. Reading and writing economics materials are both means and ends of this course.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in 6 ECON credits.

ECON 299
Quantitative Methods in Economics
3 Credits

This course is an introduction to the mathematical and statistical methods in economics. Students apply mathematical tools to economic problems, preparing them for models used in higher-level courses. Note: This course can be used to fulfill the arts credit requirements of the Bachelor of Arts and the science credit requirement of the Bachelor of Science.

Prerequisites: Minimum grades of C- in ECON 101, one of ECON 289 or MATH 114, and one of STAT 151 or STAT 161.

ECON 319
Contemporary Canadian Economic Issues
3 Credits

This course examines contemporary Canadian economic issues in relation to macroeconomic performance, monetary and fiscal policies, trade liberalization, environmental management and policies, industrial policies, social policies and regional development. The debates and policies related to contemporary economic aspects of these issues are discussed.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101 and ECON 102.

ECON 323
International Economics
3 Credits

This course examines the principles underlying the international economy in both trade and finance. Emphasis is placed on the determination of trade patterns, comparative advantage, trade and tariffs, and the macroeconomic effects of exchange rate changes. Note: Students who have taken ECON 421 or ECON 422 for credit cannot receive credit for this course.

Prerequisites: Minimum grades of C- in ECON 101 and ECON 102.

ECON 335
Urban Economics
3 Credits

This course explores how economic forces: influence development of cities in spatial, social, and economic dimensions; cause cities to grow or shrink; affect urban problems such as poverty, crime, and congestion; make urban housing markets work; and shape taxation and spending policies to promote urban sustainability.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 341
Money and Banking
3 Credits

This course analyzes the role of money and credit in the exchange process. Topics include the savings - investment process, commercial banking, financial intermediaries, financial markets, central banking, and regulations of financial institutions.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 102.

ECON 344
Fundamentals of Policy Analysis
3 Credits

This course applies economic concepts and techniques to practical policy problems that governments face, including the provision of public goods and the regulation of private individuals and businesses. Students will learn how to conduct different types of economic analyses that assist governments in deciding when and where to address a problem and how to choose between different solutions. This course provides students with an entry point to the profession of policy analysis. Note: Students can only receive credit for one of ECON 344 or POLS 344.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 101 or consent of the department; POLS 244 is recommended for all students taking this course.

ECON 345
Global Economics
3 Credits

This course aims to analyze historical and current issues surrounding globalization and regional economic integration among nations. The discussions are based on a critical review of empirical evidence and applications of theory and policies worldwide. Topics to be covered include causes and consequences of financial crises, the establishment and the role of international economic institutions, analysis of trade agreements, regional trade strategies, and the impact of globalization.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- ECON 102.

ECON 350
Economics of Public Expenditure
3 Credits

This course analyzes public expenditure policies and other issues involved in the provision of public services. The key topics include public goods, externalities, public choice, fiscal federalism, healthcare, education, and public pensions.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 353
Taxation Policy and Structure
3 Credits

This course introduces students to the basic structure of a tax system and various tax policy issues. Particular attention is paid to the Canadian tax structure and its role in attaining certain goals of society. The key concepts in this course include tax incidence, economic effects of taxes, and tax policy design.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 355
Economics of Project Evaluation
3 Credits

This course covers the use of cost-benefit analysis and other economic methods in evaluating private and public investment projects with examples from transportation, river basin management, electrical generation, and oil and gas.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 357
Topics in Applied Economics
3 Credits

This course focuses on the economic aspects and related policy issues of selected areas such as; health and health care, labour, sports, and law. Topics vary and are announced prior to registration. Consult with faculty members in Economics for details regarding current offerings.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 365
Resource Economics
3 Credits

This course examines the issues involved in the production of exhaustible and renewable natural resources, including exploration, extraction, and taxation; scarcity and pricing; and contemporary Canadian resource policy issues.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 366
Energy Economics
3 Credits

This course examines the economics of producing and consuming energy, pricing, role in economic growth, energy sources and markets, the role of government, regulation and other energy policy issues.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 369
Economics of the Environment
3 Credits

This course examines economic growth and the deterioration of the environment, types and causes of environmental deterioration, theory, policy, and measurement relating to environmental deterioration, and current Canadian environmental topics.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 101.

ECON 373
Industrial Organization
3 Credits

This course presents a survey of the theories of behaviour and performance of firms under different market structures, game-theoretical concepts applied to the study of strategic behaviour in the market, case studies, and Canadian antitrust policy and practice.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281 and either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 384
Microeconomic Theory
3 Credits

This course examines extensions and applications of microeconomic topics such as inter-temporal choice, uncertainty, game theory, externalities, public goods, asymmetric information, and general equilibrium. Recommended to students who wish to deepen their understanding in microeconomic theory and analytical skills in using microeconomic models.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281 and either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 385
Macroeconomic Theory
3 Credits

Building on Intermediate Macroeconomics, students examine government budget constraint and public debt, neoclassical growth theories, money supply, and theories of aggregate consumption, investment, and money demand.

Prerequisites: Minimum grades of C- in ECON 281 and ECON 282.

ECON 389
Mathematical Economics
3 Credits

This course focuses on mathematical techniques used to set and solve economic problems. Topics include principles and applications of total and partial differentiation, comparative static analysis, constrained and unconstrained optimization, linear inequalities, convexity, programming, other mathematical theories of interest in modern economics. Note:This course can be used to fulfill the arts credit requirements of the Bachelor of Arts and the science credit requirement of the Bachelor of Science.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, ECON 282, and in either ECON 289 or both MATH 114 and MATH 120.

ECON 398
Independent Study
3 Credits

This course permits an intermediate level student to work with an instructor to explore specific economic topics in a certain field of economics through directed reading and research using primary and secondary sources.

Prerequisites: Consent of the department.

ECON 399
Introductory Econometrics
3 Credits

This course provides an elementary treatment of  major topics in econometrics with emphasis on applied regression methods, econometric model building and applications, introduction to, and practice of empirical research methods; identifying topics, collecting data, and writing a research report. Note: This course can be used to fulfill the arts credit requirements of the Bachelor of Arts and the science credit requirement of the Bachelor of Science.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 299.

ECON 401
Field Placement
3 Credits

In this course, the students are assigned to a public, private, or non-profit organization where they apply their knowledge and skills in research, evaluation, management or analytical aspects of a project. Note: This course does not fulfill the 400-level requirement for the major and minor.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 299 and consent of the department.

ECON 414
Development Economics
3 Credits

This course focuses on economic models of growth and development in developing countries.  Topics include poverty and inequality, population dynamics, the role of agriculture, industry, saving and investment, fiscal and macro policies, international trade and globalization in structural transformation of developing countries as well as the various approaches to development planning.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281 and ECON 282.

ECON 421
International Trade
3 Credits

The course focuses on: nature and relevance of international trade; early trade doctrines; the theory of comparative advantage; classical and modern approaches and empirical evidence for them; new approaches to the pure theory of international trade; economic growth and international trade; market imperfections and trade; commercial policy; economic integration; and the gains from trade.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, and in either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 422
International Payments
3 Credits

This course examines these macroeconomic topics: the types of international transactions, macroeconomics in an open economy, exchange rates, balance of payments adjustments, and issues within the international monetary system.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, ECON 282 and in either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 441
Monetary Theory and Policy
3 Credits

In this course, students examine formal modeling of money and recent developments in monetary economics, including inflation tax and the optimum quantity of money. Key topics include term structure of interest rates, money and economic activity, rules versus discretion in monetary policy, and the role of financial deregulation.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, ECON 282 and in either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 442
Economics of Financial Markets
3 Credits

The central topics covered in this course include the measurements of risk, hedging and speculation, market microstructure, asset pricing and market equilibrium.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, in either STAT 151 or STAT 161, and in either MATH 114 or ECON 289.

ECON 443
Topics in Financial Economics
3 Credits

This course is devoted to the detailed study of a single topic. The content of the course will depend on the topic area. Students can take this course up to two times, provided the course topic is different.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in FNCE 301 or a minimum grade of C- in ECON 442.

ECON 455
Topics in Econometrics
3 Credits

This course focuses on selected contemporary topics in Econometrics. Students undertake a detailed analysis of a specific topic. The instructor chooses the topic in any given semester. Students can take this course up to two times, provided the course topic is different.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 399.

ECON 467
Environmental and Natural Resource Policy
3 Credits

The course focuses on the relationships between economic activities, environment and ecosystem; designing, implementing, managing and evaluating domestic, regional and global policy issues related to environmental, renewable and non-renewable resources. The course also discusses Canadian environmental problems and critically analyzes the policies used to address those problems.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, either MATH 114 or ECON 289, and one of ECON 365, ECON 366, or ECON 369.

ECON 481
Advanced Microeconomic Theory
3 Credits

This honours level course is an advanced microeconomics study of producer and consumer theory, general equilibrium and welfare economics, and selected topics.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 384 and ECON 389 or consent of the department.

ECON 482
Advanced Macroeconomic Theory
3 Credits

This course explores modern macroeconomic theory including theories of business cycles and growth, microfoundations of macro models, government budget constraints, expectations formation, the open economy and representative agent optimizing models.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C- in ECON 384 and ECON 385.

ECON 489
Advanced Mathematical Economics
3 Credits

This course focuses on dynamic models in economics. Topics include economic models based on first- and second-order differential equations, calculus of variations (the Euler sufficient condition), and optimal control theory (the maximum principle); instructors may include other topics, such as difference equations and discrete time optimization. Examples may come from macroeconomics, microeconomics, game theory, resource economics, energy, and other subjects in economics.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C­- in ECON 389, or both MATH 115 and 6 credits ECON, or consent of the department.

ECON 495
Applied Econometrics
3 Credits

This course covers topics that are beyond the scope of ECON 399, such as panel data models, instrumental variables, limited dependent variables, and simultaneous equations. The learning method is substantially based on computer lab work. The theory behind each econometric method studied in this course is provided only as much as necessary for the sound understanding of the respective method.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 399 or STAT 378.

ECON 497
Economic Analysis: A Capstone Seminar
3 Credits

Students use their understanding of economic theory and quantitative knowledge to investigate in depth an economic issue. In a structured environment, they learn how to analyze economic problems, find solutions and write reports. They also practice how to formally discuss critique and evaluate other economic reports and publications.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 281, ECON 282, and ECON 399.

Co-requisites: ECON 399 May be taken as Co-requisite with consent of the department.

ECON 498
Advanced Independent Study
3 Credits

This course permits a senior-level student to work with an instructor to explore a specific economic topic in depth through directed reading and research using primary and secondary sources.

Prerequisites: A minimum grade of C- in ECON 281 and ECON 282 and ECON 299 and consent of the department.

ECON 499
Honours Thesis
3 Credits

Under the direction of a faculty supervisor registered students conduct a research project culminating in a written Honours Thesis with oral defense. This course is restricted to students in the Honours Economics Program and may only be taken in their final year of the program.

Prerequisites: Department consent required.